bubbling up exceptions and throwing objects



~3 min read


533 words

Every time I’ve thrown an error, I’ve used the Error object.

  try {
    // do something
    if (/* something bad happens */) {
      throw new Error(‘whoops!)
  catch (error) {

It turns out, however, you can throw anything. I probably knew this intuitively, but I hadn’t recognized why it would be valuable until I came across it in the wild: bubbling up errors.

First, let’s look at how to throw something other than an Error object. MDN has a nice and simple example to illustrate how to throw an object: 1

You can specify an object when you throw an exception. You can then reference the object’s properties in the catch block. The following example creates an object of type UserException and uses it in a throw statement.

function UserException(message) {
   this.message = message;
   this.name = ‘UserException’;
function getMonthName(mo) {
   mo = mo - 1; // Adjust month number for array index (1 = Jan, 12 = Dec)
   var months = [‘Jan’, ‘Feb’, ‘Mar’, ‘Apr’, ‘May’, ‘Jun’, ‘Jul’,
      ‘Aug’, ‘Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec’];
   if (months[mo] !== undefined) {
      return months[mo];
   } else {
      throw new UserException(‘InvalidMonthNo’);

try {
   // statements to try
   var myMonth = 15; // 15 is out of bound to raise the exception
   var monthName = getMonthName(myMonth);
} catch (e) {
   monthName = 'unknown';
   console.error(e.message, e.name); // pass exception object to err handler

Okay, so we’re throwing an object - but how does that help us with bubbling up?

Take another example, this one abstracted from a project I’m working on. I happen to be using an API that returns a tuple - a response and an error:

const validate = async () => {
  try {
    const res = await asyncAPICall(opt);
    const response = { data: res[0], error: res[1] };
    if (error) throw new Error();
    if (response) {
      /* handle response */
  } catch (error) {
    const errorCode = error && error.response && error.response.data.code
    handleUserStateError(errorCode, setActiveScreen)

The asyncAPICall has its own try/catch:

export const asyncAPICall = async (opt) => {
  let result, error;
  try {
    const response = await backendService.post(/my/route’, {… opts});
    result = response.data;
  } catch (err) {
    error = err;

  return [result, error];

It only handles 401: Unauthorized errors though. Any other type of error is just returned and passed along as a normal result.

There may be a reason to not simply re-throw the error in the asyncAPICall, but I still needed to get the error it produced into the catch block of validate. To get it there, I replaced if (error) throw new Error() with if (error) throw error. This is a straight forward way to bubble my errors up and allow them to be handled elsewhere and it works because you can throw anything.

As long as there’s a catch block, it will be caught. If there’s no catch, the program will stop.


Hi there and thanks for reading! My name's Stephen. I live in Chicago with my wife, Kate, and dog, Finn. Want more? See about and get in touch!